There are ordinary doors - made of metal, covered with veneer or leather, and there are fire-fighting - specialized products that are able to withstand the impact of fire, prevent the spread of flame, ensure rapid and safe evacuation of people from the building. Such doors are expensive, they have, as a rule, not the best design, but are the most preferable in terms of fire safety.
- Where is the installation needed?
- How to choose a fire door?
- What is the limit of fire resistance to choose?
- Installation issues
- How justified is the installation of the fire door?
Where is the installation of fireproof doors?
Ideally, put fireproof doors in any building where there are many people. In practice, they are resorted to only in certain cases. In particular, they are established by:
- in production buildings: between workshops, rest rooms, workrooms, warehouses;
- in residential buildings where there are also non-residential premises (for example, offices - they are separated from the main part by a fire door);
- at any sites where there are high risks of fire (for example, potentially hazardous equipment and flammable materials are used): in garages, laboratories, specialized workshops and warehouses.
In any place where the risk of fire is increased, it is necessary to install a fire door. Its main function is protective. It will be a reliable barrier to the flame and will not allow it to spread beyond a single room or part of the building. However, the degree of protection depends on the type and class of the door.
Fireproof doors are made of metal and covered with powder paint.
How to choose a fire door?
The selection takes into account not only the size, but also the fire resistance limit. This is a key parameter that determines the degree of product reliability and the level of fire safety in the building or premises. The fire resistance limit is defined by the abbreviations EI and REI. Each letter in these abbreviations has its own meaning. In particular, for R we mean the loss of bearing capacity under the influence of fire, for E - loss of product integrity, for I - loss of heat-insulating qualities. If the bearing capacity is lost, the door gets the most serious defects, and the whole structure collapses. When the integrity is lost, there are holes and cracks in the canvas, through which smoke and fire enter into other rooms. Having lost heat-insulating qualities, the door starts to heat up on the other side and to heat the air in the room.
The greater the value next to the abbreviation, the longer the door will last before it collapses or loses its protective qualities.
It looks like this:
- REI 30 implies that the door will withstand the effects of fire for half an hour before it loses its load-bearing capacity, insulating qualities and integrity.
- RE 30 means that in half an hour after the start of the fire the door will lose its integrity or bearing capacity.
- R 30 Determines the loss of bearing capacity for half an hour.
The larger the number, the longer the door will last, without losing its protective properties. Of course, if only R or RE is specified, the figure should be higher (for example, 120 or 60 minutes), since the door loses its heat-shielding qualities before it collapses.
Even a high-quality fire door can not protect you and your building from a fire. Sooner or later the door will lose its integrity, and the fire will spread to the neighboring rooms. Fire resistance gives only a small head start. During this time you must have time to evacuate people from the building and take out the most valuable things, call firefighters, and ideally - eliminate the fire.
What is the limit of fire resistance to choose?
It all depends on what kind of room you want to fence off from others, how great is the risk of a fire, how quickly the room can burn out. Predicting the "behavior" of the fire is extremely difficult, but, as practice shows, the living quarters burn out in 20 minutes, and the office space - in about half an hour. If all materials are burned in the room, the flame may go out. Therefore, the fire door will simply save all the other rooms if it can withstand the fire for 30-40 minutes.
The storage of a warehouse or production hall can burn out longer, therefore doors with an increased fire resistance limit are used for it - at least 60-120 minutes it must withstand such a barrier.
Fire can penetrate through the cracks between the door frame and the wall, so you need to approach the installation with all responsibility. Use conventional materials and leave large gaps impossible. For complete sealing, a special mounting foam is used - fireproof. It can also have its own limit of fire resistance.
It is important to observe not only installation technologies, but also fire safety rules. They are simple. In particular, even ordinary doors should be swung open in the direction of movement of people during evacuation. That is, outside - in the corridors or on the street. The door swinging inwards can lead to the formation of a flea market, blocking the exit, injuries.
In the foyer, corridors on the floors, vestibules are installed doors with a simple locking mechanism that can be opened without a key from the inside. If you use a conventional lock, during evacuation you can simply not find the key. Ideal option - the system "antipanic", when the door from the outside is locked and unlocked only with a key, and from the inside it can be opened by simply pressing the handle. The handle is a long rod. If a crowd is formed, the door can open even accidentally.
It is important that the fire door closes automatically. The door closer will do the work for you: the door closes, barring the way to fire and smoke.
How justified is the installation of the fire door?
The fire door saves lives, makes the work of firefighters much more effective, protects the building from the spread of the flame. Despite the fact that such doors are expensive, such costs are justified. Ideally, it should be used with a system of "antipanic", fire alarm and extinguishing systems. Such an integrated approach will be much more effective.
Having received full deployed Advice on fire doors from site managers MNKK.RU, we decided to write here such an article, and thank them for their help.